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Organic delusional disorder was diagnosed in 2 subjects, drug-induced psychosis in 1 subject, and delusional disorder in 1 subject.

Reliability coefficients for internal stability were 0. The 6-point scale ranged from very negative to very positive.

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Following the structured interview, subjects completed the SEI and SRS, and this ended their participation in the study. Post on Nov 15 views. Hallucinations have been found by Miller and others and Romme and others to enhance self-concept and self-esteem 2,3. Global self-esteem and specific areas of self-esteem are meaningful constructs derived from conscious and unconscious self-assessments.

The raters coopefsmith their assessments independently. One scale measured comfortdiscomfort on a 6-point scale ranging from very comfortable to very uncomfortable. Schizoaffective disorder, manic eei and major depressive episode with psychotic features were each diagnosed in 5 subjects.

Forty-seven successive admissions were recruited who met inclusion criteria for the study, such as having experienced active psychosis within the past month.

These clusters represent relatively independent areas of self-esteem. The delusions and hallucinations of 40 psychotic patients were assessed by 2 independent raters for content indicative of positive or negative self-esteem and for the extent to which the delusional content would be self-enhancing or diminishing and comforting or discomforting to the subject.


Waham Original Research Inggris – [DOC Document]

This study demonstrates that 2 specific personality factors, global self-esteem and self-regard, are reflected in the content of delusions and influence whether those delusions are experienced as comfortable or uncomfortable and enhancing or diminishing.

If the content of delusions and hallucinations reflects an individuals self-esteem, lower seii would promote less favourable content while higher self-esteem would be reflected by more positive content.

Testretest reliability is 0. Only delusions and hallucinations meeting the highly probable criterion were included in the study.

Can J Psychiatry ; Auditory hallucinations were most frequent [30], followed by visual [19], tactile [4], olfactory [3], and gustatory [2] hallucinations. Correlations and shared variance between global self-esteem and 5 specific areas of self-esteem Self-regard Interpersonal relationships School and work abilities Physical appearance Physical abilities The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory CorrelationShared variance 0.

This increased the probability that overvalued ideas and illusions were excluded. Two of these scales rated subjects reactions to each contenk or hallucination they experienced.

Seven patients refused to take part in the study for reasons that suggested a fear of manipulation or persecution. Of the 40 subjects, 15 had delusions only, 2 had hallucinations only, and 23 had a combination of the two.

Instruments The following scales were used in the study: On average, subjects found their delusions and hallucinations to be slightly uncomfortable and diminishing to the self. This was a forced choice with no neutral 0 rating provided. The other measured the enhancingdiminishing effects of each delusion or hallucination, such as the degree to which each made them feel better or worse about themselves.

The sections assessing delusions and hallucinations were used in this study. Less frequent were thought insertion [9], thought broadcasting [8], somatic delusions [7], delusions of guilt [7], thought withdrawal [7], thought reading [6], religious delusions [4], delusions of jealousy [2], delusions of catastrophe [2], delusions of thought control [1], and sexual delusions [1]. Alternatively, if the content of delusions and hallucinations defends self-esteem, lower self-esteem would produce more favourable, self-enhancing content.


Waham Original Research Inggris

Procedure Competent subjects who provided informed consent were interviewed within 14 coopersmiht of admission using the PSE. Delusional content is therefore consistent with patients views of themselves, and this may coipersmith account for the persistence of delusions.

Adult and child forms of the inventory have been developed, and over studies have assessed the reliability and validity of these measures. The mean comfort level and enhancement ocopersmith for hallucinations were somewhat lower at 2.

Each subject was assigned a number, which was used by the raters when they were completing the ratings. The number of hallucinations reported by the 40 subjects was 58 mean 1. The most frequent were delusions of reference [37], persecution [29], grandiose delusions [23], and delusions of control [16]. The adult SEI form used in this study contains 25 items.

Information on variables such as age, education, medications prescribed, and length of illness was obtained from each subjects chart. The lowest shared variance is for school and work abilities and physical appearance 0.

Kokenes confirmed the construct validity of the subscales as measuring sources of self-esteem 9, Categories of Delusions and Hallucinations One hundred and fifty-nine delusions were reported by the 40 subjects mean 3.